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Germany - Wikipedia

Archived PDF from the original on 10 October Why their substance is crumbling and how the idea can continue to shine. Innovation made in Germany Cutting-edge research from Germany — the most exciting projects, the most important contacts. The German penal system seeks the rehabilitation of the criminal and the protection of the public. World Wildlife Federation. The Great Famine — and the Black Death — The name Tungri is thought to be the endonym corresponding to the exonym Eburones.

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Because of Germany 's long history as a non-united region of distinct tribes and states before , there are many widely varying names of Germany in different languages, more so than for any other European nation. For example, in the German language, the country is known as Deutschland from the Old High German diutisc , in Spanish as Alemania and in French as Allemagne from the name of the Alamanni tribe , in Italian as Germania from the Latin Germania although the German people are called tedeschi , in Polish as Niemcy from the Protoslavic nemets , and in Finnish and Estonian as Saksa and Saksamaa respectively from the name of the Saxon tribe. From Old High German diutisc or similar [a]. From the name of the Alamanni tribe. From the name of the Saxon tribe. Unclear origin [g]. This in turn comes from a Germanic word meaning "folk" leading to Old High German diot , Middle High German diet , and was used to differentiate between the speakers of Germanic languages and those who spoke Celtic or Romance languages. Also the Italian for "German", tedesco local or archaic variants: todesco , tudesco , todisco , comes from the same Old High German root, although not the name for "Germany" Germania. The Germanic language which diutisc most likely comes from is West Frankish, a language which died out a long time ago and which there is hardly any written evidence for today. The word is only known from the Latin form theodiscus. Until the 8th century the Franks called their language frengisk ; however, when the Franks moved their political and cultural centre to the area where France now is, the term frengisk became ambiguous, as in the West Francian territory some Franks spoke Latin, some vulgar Latin and some theodisc. For this reason a new word was needed to help differentiate between them. Thus the word theodisc evolved from the Germanic word theoda the people with the Latin suffix -iscus , to mean "belonging to the people", i. In Eastern Francia , roughly the area where Germany now is, it seems that the new word was taken on by the people only slowly, over the centuries: in central Eastern Francia the word frengisk was used for a lot longer, as there was no need for people to distinguish themselves from the distant Franks. The word diutsch and other variants were only used by people to describe themselves, at first as an alternative term, from about the 10th century.

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Because of Germany 's long history as a non-united region of distinct tribes and states beforethere are many widely varying names of Germany in different languages, more so than for any other European nation.

For example, in the German language, the country is known kennenlernen steiermark manner Deutschland from the Old High German diutiscin Spanish as Alemania and in French as Allemagne from the name of the Alamanni tribein Italian as Germania from the Latin Germania although the German people are called tedeschiin Polish as Niemcy from the Protoslavic nemets continue reading, and in Finnish and Estonian as Saksa and Saksamaa respectively from the name of the Saxon tribe.

From Old High German diutisc deutschland single land similar [a]. From the name of the Alamanni tribe. From the name of the Saxon tribe. Unclear origin [g]. This in turn comes from a Germanic word meaning "folk" leading to Old High German diotMiddle High German dietand was used to differentiate between the speakers of Germanic languages and those who spoke Celtic or Romance languages. Also the Italian for "German", tedesco local or archaic variants: todescotudescotodiscocomes from the same Old High German root, although not the deutschland single land for "Germany" Germania.

The Germanic language which diutisc most likely comes from is West Frankish, a language which died out a long time ago and which there is hardly any written evidence for today.

The word is only known from the Latin form theodiscus. Until the 8th century the Franks called their language frengisk ; however, when the Franks moved their political and cultural centre to the area where France now is, the term frengisk became ambiguous, as in the West Francian territory some Franks spoke Article source, some vulgar Latin and some theodisc. For this reason a new word was needed to help differentiate between them.

Thus the word theodisc evolved from the Https://ka-dating.xyz/cat2/frauen-kennenlernen-sauna.php word theoda the people with the Latin suffix -iscusto mean "belonging to the people", i.

In Eastern Franciaroughly the area where Germany now is, it seems that the new word was taken on by the people only slowly, over the centuries: in central Eastern Francia the word frengisk was used for a lot longer, as there was no need for people to distinguish themselves from the distant Franks. The word diutsch and other variants were only used by people to describe themselves, at first as an alternative term, from about the 10th century.

It was used, for example, in the Sachsenspiegela legal code, written in Middle Low German in about Iewelk düdesch lant hevet sinen palenzgreven: sassen, beieren, vranken unde svaven Every German land has its Graf : Saxony, Bavaria, Franken and Swabia. The Teutonia tribe with a name which probably came from the same root, did, through Latinultimately give birth to the English words "Teuton" first found in for the adjective German, as in the Teutonic Knightsa military religious order, and the Teutonic Cross and "Teuton" nounattested from In the northern French language area northern France, Belgiumthe neighboring Germanic dialects, areas and inhabitants of Flanders to Alsace are sometimes referred to as Thioismost likely still for the area between Maastricht and Aachen and for the traditional German speaking part of Lorraine Lorraine ThioiseThe term is obsolete and derives from theodisc see above.

The name Germany and the other similar-sounding names above are all derived from the Latin Germaniaof the 3rd century BC, a word simply describing fertile land behind the limes.

It was likely the Gauls who first called the people who crossed east of the Rhine Germani which the Romans adopted as the original Germanic tribes did not refer to themselves as Germanus singular or Germani plural. Julius Caesar was the first to use Germanus in writing when describing tribes in north-eastern Gaul in his Commentarii de Bello Gallico : he records that four northern Belgic tribes, namely the CondrusiEburonesCaeraesi and Paemaniwere collectively known as Germani.

Unlike Caesar, Tacitus claims that the name Germani was first applied to the Tungri tribe. The name Tungri is thought to be the endonym corresponding to the exonym Eburones. Caesar claims that most of the northern Belgae were descended from tribes who had long ago crossed the Rhine from Germania. However many tribal names and personal names or titles recorded are identifiably Celtic. It seems likely that the northern Deutschland single land, due to their intense contact with the Gaulish south, were largely influenced by this southern culture.

Tribal names were 'qualifications' and could have been franken partnersuche or given by the Gauls and picked up by Caesar. Perhaps they were Germanic people who had adopted Gaulish titles or names. The Belgians were a political alliance of southern Celtic and northern Germanic tribes.

In any case, the Romans were not precise in their ethnography of northern barbarians : by "German ic " Caesar meant "originating east of the Rhine".

Tacitus wrote in his book Germania : "The Treveri and Nervii take pride in their German origin, stating that this noble blood separates them from all comparison with the Gauls and the Gaulish laziness".

Another theory is gairmbattle-cry put forward by Johann Wachter and Jacob Grimmwho was a philologist as well as collector and editor of fairy tales. He describes continue reading ger theory as "obsolete". In English, the word "German" is first attested inreplacing earlier uses of AlmainAlman and Dutch. In German, the word Germanen today refers to Germanic tribesjust like the Italian noun "Germani" adjective: "germanici"and the French adjective " germanique ".

The name Allemagne and the other similar-sounding names above are derived from the southern Germanic Alemannia Suebic tribe or confederation in today's Alsace deutschland single land, parts of Baden-Württemberg and Switzerland. In English, the name "Almain" or "Alman" was used for Germany and for the adjective German until the 16th century, with "German" first attested inused at first as an alternative then becoming a replacement, maybe inspired mainly by the need to differ them from the more and more independently acting Dutch.

In Othello ii,3, aboutfor example, Shakespeare deutschland single land both "German" and "Almain" when Iago describes the visit web page prowess of the English:. Andrew Boorde also mentions Germany in his Introduction to Knowledgec. Through this name, the English language has also been given the Allemande a dancethe Almain rivet and probably the almond furnacewhich is probably not really connected to the word "almond" of Greek origin but is a corruption of "Almain furnace".

In modern German, Alemannisch Alemannic German is a group of dialects of the Upper German branch of the Germanic language family, spoken by approximately ten million people in six countries. Among the indigenous peoples of North America of former French and British colonial areas, the word for "Germany" came primarily [ citation needed ] as a borrowing from either French or English. The names Saksamaa and Saksa are derived from the name of the Germanic tribe of the Saxons.

In Finnish and Estonian the words that historically applied to ancient Saxons changed their meaning over the centuries to denote the whole country of Germany and the Germans. In some Celtic languages the word for the English nationality is derived from Saxon, e. The plural form is used for the Germans instead of any specific country name, e. According to another theory, [15] [16] Https://ka-dating.xyz/cat5/griechische-manner-flirten.php may derive from the Rhine-based, Germanic tribe of Nemetes mentioned by Caesar [17] and Tacitus.

Over time, the Slavic exonym was borrowed by some non-Slavic languages. The Austrian Empire as well was the biggest German-speaking country in the 16—17th centuries bordering on the Ottoman Empire. Vuojola and eston. So the word for German possibly comes from a name originally given by West Baltic tribes to the Vikings. Such names could have been used to describe neighbouring people whose language was incomprehensible to Baltic peoples.

In East Asia, the names have generally been imported directly from German "deutsch" or More info "duits" in various ways. The Chinese name is a phonetic approximation of the German proper adjective. The Vietnamese name is based on the Chinese name. The Japanese name is a treffen bayern approximation of the Dutch proper adjective.

The Korean name is based on the Japanese name. This is explained in detail below:. It is now uncommon. The terminology for "Germany", the "German states" and "Germans" is complicated by the unusual history of Germany over the deutschland single land years.

This can cause confusion in German and English, as well in other languages. While the notion of Germans and Germany is older, it is only since that there has been a nation-state of Germany.

Later political disagreements and the partition of Germany — has further made it difficult to use proper terminology. Starting with Charlemagnethe territory of modern Germany was within the realm of the Holy Roman Empire.

It was a union of relatively independent rulers who each ruled their own territories. This empire was called in German Heiliges Römisches Reichwith the addition from the late Learn more here Ages of Deutscher Nation of the German nationshowing that the former idea of a universal realm had given way to a concentration on the German territories.

In 19th and 20th century historiography, the Holy Roman Empire was often referred to as Deutsches Reichcreating a link to the later nation state of Roman authors mentioned a number of tribes they called Germani —the tribes did not themselves use the term. After these tribes were identified by linguists as belonging to a group of Germanic language speakers which include modern languages like German, English and Dutch.

Germani for the people and Germania for the area where they lived became the common Latin words for Germans and Germany. Germans call themselves Deutsche living in Deutschland.

The term was first used to designate the popular language as opposed to the language used by the religious and secular rulers who used Latin. These English terms were obsolete by the 19th century.

This feudal state became a union of relatively independent rulers who developed their own territories. Modernisation took place on the territorial level such as Austria, Prussia, Saxony or Bremennot on the level of the Empire. Some of the German countries were then collected into the Confederation of the Rhinewhich remained a military alliance under the "protection" of Napoleon, rather than consolidating into an actual confederation. After the fall of Napoleon inthese states created a German Confederation with the Emperor https://ka-dating.xyz/cat5/dating-line-kostenlos.php Austria as president.

Some member states, such as Prussia and Austria, included only a part of their territories within the confederation, while other member states brought territories to the alliance that included people, like the Poles and the Czechs, who did not speak German as their native tongue.

In addition, there were also substantial German speaking populations that remained outside deutschland single land confederation. In Hoffmann von Fallersleben wrote the song Das Lied der Deutschen[21] giving voice to the dreams of a unified Germany Deutschland über Alles to replace the alliance of independent states.

In this era of emerging national movements, "Germany" was used only as a reference to a particular geographical area. It became a federal state with its constitution of 1 July The remaining South German countries, with the exception of Austria and Liechtenstein, joined the country in The first nation state named "Germany" began in ; before that Germany referred to a geographical entity comprising many states, much as "the Balkans" is used today, or the term "America" was used by the founders of "the United States of America.

In German constitutional history, the expressions Reich reign, realm, empire and Click here federation, confederation are somewhat interchangeable. Sometimes deutschland single land even co-existed in the same constitution: for example in the German Empire — the parliament had the name Reichstagthe council of the representatives of the German states Bundesrat. When in —71 the North German Confederation was transformed into the German Read article, the preamble said that the participating monarchs are creating einen ewigen Bund an eternal confederation which will have the name Deutsches Reich.

Due to the history of Germany, the principle of federalism is strong. Only the state of Hitler — and the state of the communists East Germany, — were centralist states. As a result, the words Reich and Bund were used more frequently than in other countries, in order to distinguish between imperial or federal institutions and those at a subnational level. For example, a modern federal German minister is called Bundesministerin contrast to a Landesminister who holds office in a state such as Rhineland-Palatinate or Lower Saxony.

As a result of the Hitler regime, and maybe also of Imperial Germany up tomany Germans — especially those on the political left — have negative feelings about the word Reich. Bund is another word also used in contexts other than politics. In other German speaking countries, the words Reich Austria before and Bund Austria sinceSwitzerland are used too. An organ named Bundesrat exists in all three of them: in Switzerland it is the government and in Germany and Austria the house of regional representatives.

In the 19th century beforeGermans, for example in the Frankfurt Parliament of —49, argued about what should become of Deutschland single land. In the Weimar Constitution postulated the inclusion of Deutsch-Österreich the German-speaking parts of Austriabut the Western Allies objected to this. It was realised only in when Germany annexed Austria Anschluss. Https://ka-dating.xyz/cat1/single-manner-buxtehude.php, these expressions became neither common nor popular.

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